Be It Resolved That the Negro people of the world, through their chosen
representatives in convention assembled in Liberty Hall, in the City of New York and
United States of America, from August 1 to August 31, in the year of Our Lord one
thousand nine hundred and twenty, protest against the wrongs and injustices they are
suffering at the hands of their white brethren, and state what they deem their fair and just
rights, as well as the treatment they propose to demand of all men in the future.

We complain:

  1. That nowhere in the world, with few exceptions, are Black men accorded equal treatment
    with white men, although in the same situation and circumstances, but, on the contrary, are
    discriminated against and denied the common rights due to human beings for no other reason
    than their race and color. We are not willingly accepted as guests in the public hotels and inns
    of the world for no other reason than our race and color.
  2. In certain parts of the United States of America our race is denied the right of public
    trial accorded to other races when accused of crime, but are lynched and burned by mobs,
    and such brutal and inhuman treatment is even practiced upon our women.
  3. That European nations have parceled out among them and taken possession of nearly
    all of the continent of Africa, and the natives are compelled to surrender their lands to
    aliens and are treated in most instances like slaves.
  4. In the southern portion of the United States of America, although citizens under the
    Federal Constitution, and in some States almost equal to the whites in population and are
    qualified land owners and taxpayers, we are, nevertheless, denied all voice in the making
    and administration of the laws and are taxed without representation by the State
    governments, and at the same time compelled to do military service in defense of the country.
  5. On the public conveyances and common carriers in the southern portion of the United
    States we are Jim-crowed and compelled to accept separate and inferior accommodations
    and made to pay the same fare charged for first-class accommodations, and our families
    are often humiliated and insulted by drunken white men who habitually pass through the
    Jim-crow cars going to the smoking car.
  6. The physicians of our race are denied the right to attend their patients while in the
    public hospitals of the cities and States where they reside in certain parts of the United States.
    Our children are forced to attend inferior separate schools for shorter terms than white children
    and the public school funds are unequally divided between the white and colored schools.
  7. We are discriminated against and denied an equal chance to earn wages for the support of our families, and in many instances are refused admission into labor unions and nearly everywhere are paid smaller wages than white men.
  1. In the Civil Service and departmental offices we are everywhere discriminated against
    and made to feel that to be a black man in Europe, America and the West Indies is
    equivalent to being an outcast and a leper among the races of men, no matter what the
    character attainments of the black men may be.
  2. In the British and other West Indian islands and colonies Negroes are secretly and
    cunningly discriminated against and denied those fuller rights of government to which
    white citizens are appointed, nominated and elected.
  3. That our people in those parts are forced to work for lower wages than the average
    standard of white men and are kept in conditions repugnant to good civilized tastes and customs.
  4. That the many acts of injustices against members of our race before the courts of law
    in the respective islands and colonies are of such nature as to create disgust and
    disrespect for the white man’s sense of justice.
  5. Against all such inhuman, unchristian and uncivilized treatment we here and now
    emphatically protest, and invoke the condemnation of all mankind.

    In order to encourage our race all over the world and to stimulate it to overcome
    the handicaps and difficulties surrounding it, and to push forward to a higher and
    grander destiny, we demand and insist on the following Declaration of Rights:

    1. Be it known to all men that whereas all men are created equal and entitled to the rights
    of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and because of this we, the duly elected
    representatives of the Negro peoples of the world, invoking the aid of the just and
    Almighty God, do declare all men, women and children of our blood throughout the world
    free denizens, and do claim them as free citizens of Africa, the Motherland of all Negroes

    2. That we believe in the supreme authority of our race in all things racial; that all things
    are created and given to man as a common possession; that there should be an equitable
    distribution and apportionment of all such things, and in consideration of the fact that as a
    race we are now deprived of those things that are morally and legally ours, we believed it
    right that all such things should be acquired and held by whatsoever means possible.

    3. That we believe the Negro, like any other race, should be governed by the ethics of
    civilization, and therefore should not be deprived of any of those rights or privileges
    common to other human beings.

    4. We declare that Negroes, wheresoever they form a community among themselves should
    be given the right to elect their own representatives to represent them in Legislatures,
    courts of law, or such institutions as may exercise control over that particular community.

    5. We assert that the Negro is entitled to even-handed justice before all courts of law and equity in whatever country he may be found, and when this is denied him on account of his race or color such denial is an insult to the race as a whole and should be resented by the entire body of Negroes.
  1. We declare it unfair and prejudicial to the rights of Negroes in communities where they
    exist in considerable numbers to be tried by a judge and jury composed entirely of an
    alien race, but in all such cases members of our race are entitled to representation on the jury.
  2. We believe that any law or practice that tends to deprive any African of his land or the
    privileges of free citizenship within his country is unjust and immoral, and no native
    should respect any such law or practice.
  3. We declare taxation without representation unjust and tyrannous, and there should be
    no obligation on the part of the Negro to obey the levy of a tax by any law-making body
    from which he is excluded and denied representation on account of his race and color.
  4. We believe that any law especially directed against the Negro to his detriment and
    singling him out because of his race or color is unfair and immoral, and should not be respected.
  5. We believe all men entitled to common human respect and that our race should in no
    way tolerate any insults that may be interpreted to mean disrespect to our race or color.
  6. We deprecate the use of the term “nigger” as applied to Negroes, and demand that the
    word “Negro” be written with a capital “N.”
  7. We believe that the Negro should adopt every means to protect himself against
    barbarous practices inflicted upon him because of color.
  8. We believe in the freedom of Africa for the Negro people of the world, and by the
    principle of Europe for the Europeans and Asia for the Asiatics, we also demand Africa for the
    Africans at home and abroad.
  9. We believe in the inherent right of the Negro to possess himself of Africa and that his
    possession of same shall not be regarded as an infringement of any claim or purchase made by
    any race or nation.
  10. We strongly condemn the cupidity of those nations of the world who, by open aggression or
    secret schemes, have seized the territories and inexhaustible natural wealth of Africa, and we
    place on record our most solemn determination to reclaim the treasures and possession of the
    vast continent of our forefathers.
  11. We believe all men should live in peace one with the other, but when races and nations
    provoke the ire of other races and nations by attempting to infringe upon their rights[,] war
    becomes inevitable, and the attempt in any way to free one’s self or protect one’s rights or
    heritage becomes justifiable.
  12. Whereas the lynching, by burning, hanging or any other means, of human beings is a
    barbarous practice and a shame and disgrace to civilization, we therefore declare any country
    guilty of such atrocities outside the pale of civilization.
  13. We protest against the atrocious crime of whipping, flogging and overworking of the
    native tribes of Africa and Negroes everywhere. These are methods that should be
    abolished and all means should be taken to prevent a continuance of such brutal practices.
  14. We protest against the atrocious practice of shaving the heads of Africans, especially
    of African women or individuals of Negro blood, when placed in prison as a punishment
    for crime by an alien race.
  15. We protest against segregated districts, separate public conveyances, industrial
    discrimination, lynchings and limitations of political privileges of any Negro citizen in
    any part of the world on account of race, color or creed, and will exert our full influence
    and power against all such.
  16. We protest against any punishment inflicted upon a Negro with severity, as against
    lighter punishment inflicted upon another of an alien race for like offense, as an act of
    prejudice and injustice, and should be resented by the entire race.
  17. We protest against the system of education in any country where Negroes are denied
    the same privileges and advantages as other races.
  18. We declare it inhuman and unfair to boycott Negroes from industries and labor in any
    part of the world.
  19. We believe in the doctrine of the freedom of the press, and we therefore emphatically
    protest against the suppression of Negro newspapers and periodicals in various parts of the
    world, and call upon Negroes everywhere to employ all available means to prevent such
  20. We further demand free speech universally for all men.
  21. We hereby protest against the publication of scandalous and inflammatory articles by an
    alien press tending to create racial strife and the exhibition of picture films showing the Negro as
    a cannibal.
  22. We believe in the self-determination of all peoples.
  23. We declare for the freedom of religious worship.
  24. With the help of Almighty God we declare ourselves the sworn protectors of the honor and
    virtue of our women and children, and pledge our lives for their protection and defense
    everywhere and under all circumstances from wrongs and outrages.
  25. We demand the right of an unlimited and unprejudiced education for ourselves and our
    posterity forever.
  26. We declare that the teaching in any school by alien teachers to our boys and girls, that the
    alien race is superior to the Negro race, is an insult to the Negro people of the world.
  27. Where Negroes form a part of the citizenry of any country, and pass the civil service
    examination of such country, we declare them entitled to the same consideration as other citizens
    as to appointments in such civil service.
  28. We vigorously protest against the increasingly unfair and unjust treatment accorded Negro
    travelers on land and sea by the agents and employee of railroad and steamship companies, and
    insist that for equal fare we receive equal privileges with travelers of other races.
  29. We declare it unjust for any country, state or nation to enact laws tending to hinder and
    obstruct the free immigration of Negroes on account of their race and color.
  30. That the right of the Negro to travel unmolested throughout the world be not abridged by any
    person or persons, and all Negroes are called upon to give aid to a fellow Negro when thus
  31. We declare that all Negroes are entitled to the same right to travel over the world as other
  32. We hereby demand that the governments of the world recognize our leader and his
    representatives chosen by the race to look after the welfare of our people under such
  33. We demand complete control of our social institutions without interference by any alien race
    or races.
  34. That the colors, Red, Black and Green, be the colors of the Negro race.
  35. Resolved That the anthem “Ethiopia, Thou Land of Our Fathers etc.,” shall be the anthem of
    the Negro race. . . .
  36. We believe that any limited liberty which deprives one of the complete rights and
    prerogatives of full citizenship is but a modified form of slavery.
  37. We declare it an injustice to our people and a serious Impediment to the health of the race to
    deny to competent licensed Negro physicians the right to practice in the public hospitals of the
    communities in which they reside, for no other reason than their race and color.
  38. We call upon the various government[s] of the world to accept and acknowledge Negro
    representatives who shall be sent to the said governments to represent the general welfare of the
    Negro peoples of the world.
  39. We deplore and protest against the practice of confining juvenile prisoners in prisons with
    adults, and we recommend that such youthful prisoners be taught gainful trades under humane
  40. Be it further resolved, That we as a race of people declare the League of Nations null and
    void as far as the Negro is concerned, in that it seeks to deprive Negroes of their liberty.
  41. We demand of all men to do unto us as we would do unto them, in the name of justice; and
    we cheerfully accord to all men all the rights we claim herein for ourselves.
  42. We declare that no Negro shall engage himself in battle for an alien race without first
    obtaining the consent of the leader of the Negro people of the world, except in a matter of
    national self-defense.
  43. We protest against the practice of drafting Negroes and sending them to war with alien forces
    without proper training, and demand in all cases that Negro soldiers be given the same training
    as the aliens.
  44. We demand that instructions given Negro children in schools include the subject of “Negro
    History,” to their benefit.
  45. We demand a free and unfettered commercial intercourse with all the Negro people of the
  46. We declare for the absolute freedom of the seas for all peoples.
  47. We demand that our duly accredited representatives be given proper recognition in all
    leagues, conferences, conventions or courts of international arbitration wherever human rights
    are discussed.
  48. We proclaim the 31st day of August of each year to be an international holiday to be
    observed by all Negroes.
  49. We want all men to know that we shall maintain and contend for the freedom and equality of
    every man, woman and child of our race, with our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor.
    These rights we believe to be justly ours and proper for the protection of the Negro race at large, and because of this
    belief we, on behalf of the four hundred million Negroes of the world, do pledge herein the sacred blood of the race in
    defense, and we hereby subscribe our names as a guarantee of the truthfulness and faithfulness hereof, in the
    presence of Almighty God, on this 13th day of August, in the year of Our Lord one thousand nine hundred and twenty.

Marcus Garvey, James D. Brooks, James W. H. Eason, Henrietta Vinton Davis, Lionel Winston Greenidge, Adrion Fitzroy Johnson, Rudolph Ethelbert Brissaac Smith,
Charles Augustus Petioni, Thomas H. N. Simon, Richard Hilton Tobitt, George Alexander NcGuire, Peter Edward Baston, Reynold R. Felix, Harry Walters Kirby, Sarah
Branch, Marie Barrier Houston, George L. O’Brien, F.O. Ogilvie, Arden A. Bryan, Benjamin Dyett, Marie Duchaterlier, John Phillip Hodge, Theophilus H. Saunders, Wilford
H. Smith, Gabriel E. Stewart, Arnold Josiah Ford, Lee Crawford, William McCartney, Adina Clem. James, William Musgrave La Motte, John Sydney de Bourg, Arnold S.
Cunning, Vernal J. Williams, Frances Wilcome Ellegor, J. Frederick Selkridge, Innis Abel Horsford, Cyril A. Crichlow, Samuel McIntyre, John Thomas Wilkins, Mary
Thurston, John G. Befue, William Ware, J. A. Lewis, O. C. Thurston, Venture R. Hamilton, R.H. Hodge, Edward Alfred Taylor, Ellen Wilson, G.W. Wilson, Richard Edward
Riley, Nellie Grant Whiting, G. W. Washington, Maldena Miller, Gertrude Davis, James D. Williams, Emily Christmas Kinch, D. D. Lewis, Nettie Clayton, Partheria Hills,
Janie Jenkins, John C. Simons, Alphonso A. Jones, Allen Hobbs, Reynold Fitzgerald Austin, James Benjamin Yearwood, Frank O. Raines, Shedrick Williams, John Edward
Ivey, Frederick August Toote, Philip Hemmings, F. F. Smith, E. J. Jones, Joseph Josiah Cranston, Frederick Samuel Ricketts, Dugald Augustus Wade, E. E Nelom, Florida
Jenkins, Napoleon J. Francis, Joseph D Gibson, J. P. Jasper, J. W. Montgomery, David Benjamin, J. Gordon, Harry E. Ford, Carrie M. Ashford, Andrew N. Willis, Lucy Sands,
Louise Woodson, George D. Creese, W. A. Wallace, Thomas E. Bagley, James Young, Prince Alfred McConney, John E. Hudson, William Ines, Harry R. Watkins, C.L. Halton,
J. T. Bailey, Ira Joseph Touissant Wright, T. H. Golden, Abraham Benjamin Thomas, Richard C. Noble, Walter Green, C. S. Bourne, G. F. Bennett, B. D. Levy, Mary E.
Johnson, Lionel Antonio Francis, Carl Roper, E. R. Donawa, Philip Van Putten, I. Brathwaite, Jesse W. Luck, Oliver kaye, J. W. Hudspeth, C. B. Lovell, William C. Matthews,
A. Williams, Ratford E. M. Jack, H. Vinton Plummer, Randolph Phillips, A. I. Bailey, duly elected representatives of the Negro people of the world.